Computer graphics, computer-aided design, and computer-aided manufacturing are tools that have become indispensable to a wide array of activities in contemporary society. Euclidean processing provides the basis for these computer-aided design systems although it contains elements that inevitably lead to an inaccurate, non-robust, and complex system. The primary cause of the deficiencies of Euclidean processing is the division operation, which becomes necessary if an n-space problem is to be processed in n-space. The difficulties that accompany the division operation may be avoided if processing is conducted entirely in (n+1)-space. The paradigm attained through the logical extension of this approach, totally four-dimensional processing, is the subject of this book. This book offers a new system of geometric processing techniques that attain accurate, robust, and compact computations, and allow the construction of a systematically structured CAD system.
For much of the postwar era, Heinz Nixdorf epitomized the Wirtschaftswunder, Germany's extraordinary recovery from the devastation of war. During his lifetime, he became a legend as the visionary young entrepreneur who had the nerve to challenge the giants of the computer industry. He started out with a moped, a few hand tools and a project. He set up his workshop in the basement of an electric power plant and built it into a one-man global company employing 20000 people. In 1986, at the age of 60, during a company party held at the Hannover Fair, he was struck by a heart attack. During the war, he served on the Eastern Front. Upon his return, he studied four years at Frankfurt University, but decided to leave without earning a degree and to set up his own company. He was toying with the idea of bringing the computer to the office, which was in complete contrast to the strategy of the industry leaders. Yet he prevailed and thereby opened up new markets. The technical knowledge he gradually acquired through years of hard work, allowed him to recognize with incredible ability the value of new and untried ideas and to put them into practice. He had the clairvoyance to reduce complex matters to the simplest possible denominator and to concentrate on what was essential. Once he made a decision, he went ahead, regardless of the consequences. He possessed the characteristics of a dynamic entrepreneur: a willingness to take risks, self-confidence, a pioneering spirit, discipline and motivation to venture into the use of untested technology. Whereas the computer industry was producing mainframes available only to large corporations, he decided to pave the way for decentralized computing by making desktop machines available to small and medium companies. Unencumbered by the electromechanical tradition of the industry, he ventured into new fields of electronics. Nixdorf was an optimist convinced he could overcome any obstacle. His leadership style and the organizational structure and framework which he developed in his company were based on the idea that victory belongs to the bold. He was an unusual executive in that he was not only the manager; he owned the business lock, stock, and barrel. He was convinced that an entrepreneur does not gain legitimacy by the wealth he accumulates, but by the contribution he makes to society. Money was not his driving force. But the memory of the hardships he endured during his early years, the loss of his father during the war and the privations his mother, brothers and sisters had to endure, never left him.
Multithreaded computer architecture has emerged as one of the most promising and exciting avenues for the exploitation of parallelism. This new field represents the confluence of several independent research directions which have united over a common set of issues and techniques. Multithreading draws on recent advances in dataflow, RISC, compiling for fine-grained parallel execution, and dynamic resource management. It offers the hope of dramatic performance increases through parallel execution for a broad spectrum of significant applications based on extensions to `traditional' approaches.
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For college students who are becoming teachers, developing 21st century technology skills requires a dynamic shift in the way they think about and make use of technology in schools. Learning how to use computer hardware and software is less and less the primary goal. Instead, teachers and students need 21st century learningmindsets in which they are active users and assessors of technology. "21st century learning" means teachers prepare, deliver, and assess lessons differently while students think critically and creatively about the learning they do and the technologies they use. Pre-service teachers are coming to recognize that the 21st century approach to educational technology means understanding what interactive computer technologies can do and how to utilize them to create engaging, memorable learning experiences for students. The authors have written this book to help students to do just that.
The Second Edition provides essential coverage of New and Emerging Technologies including 21st century learning, tablet computers and apps, flipped classrooms, microblogging, online learning, virtual schools, digital citizenship, and digital video as well as expanded explorations of educational websites and software, learning games, digital portfolios, assistive technologies, and student participation systems. These additions let students learn about how the latest technologies can be used in schools to create successful learning experiences for K-12 students. The Enhanced Pearson eText features embedded video.
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The first edition of this book was published by Chapman and Hall Ltd. in 1996. The first edition contained nine chapters and, for all except one chapter, the original chapter authors agreed to update their chapter. Comparing these chapters gives the reader an idea of the development over a time span of more than 10 years between the two editions. In the preparation of the second edition we decided to add more chapters reflecting some important fields with significant contributions to present day fishery research. These are the use of internet for searching of information (Chapter 2), and the present state and use of remote sensing (Chapter 5), ecosystem modeling (Chapter 8) and visualization of data (Chapter 10). This second edition provides a valuable sampling of contemporary applications. Scientists have an opportunity to evaluate the suitability of different computer technology applications to their particular research situation thereby taking advantage of the experience of others. The chapters that follow are the fruition of this idea. The history behind this book started in 1989 when we were asked by Dr. Vidar Wespestad (previously: Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA) to prepare and convene a session at the 1992 World Fishery Congress in Athens, Greece on computer applications in fisheries. We agreed that the idea was a good one and the computer session in 1992 turned out to be very successful.
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